To yolk or not to yolk!!

The information below was something I wondered about. I have started cooking my eggs sunny side up or over easy!  I had read over the years that it was better to eat the yolk without cooking it fully. So I wanted to know why. The links for the articles that follow are at the bottom. We want to give credit where credit is due!! I will have a second blog post on the best egg yolks out there!!  

All you need to know about egg yolk

Egg yolks are the yellow part at the center of an egg. They contain high levels of cholesterol but also provide a range of vital nutrients and health benefits.

Eggs are a low cost, nutrient dense food that is easy to access and prepare, making them an excellent dietary staple for many people worldwide.

They are extremely versatile. People can prepare eggs in several different ways or use them in many aspects of food preparation, cooking, and baking.

In this article, we explain the benefits and nutritional breakdown of egg yolks. We also compare them with egg whites and provide tips on how to eat them safely.

Eating the egg white and yolk together in a whole egg provides the right balance of protein, fat, and calories. This combination allows most people to feel fuller and more satisfied after eating eggs in meals.

However, a 2019 review suggests that most of the nutrients in an egg are in the yolk. The distribution of the proteins, however, is even throughout the whole egg.

The review highlights several benefits that the nutrients and proteins in egg yolk may provide, including:

  • A lower risk of gastrointestinal distress: This benefit may be due to egg yolk proteins, such as phosvitin, which may reduce the number of compounds in the body that cause inflammation.
  • A boosted immune system: Certain compounds called sulfated glycopeptides are present in the membrane of the egg yolk. These may stimulate the production of macrophages, which are cells in the immune system that protect the body against disease and infection.
  • Lower blood pressure: The review notes that egg yolk contains several compounds called peptides that research has shown to reduce blood pressure significantly in rats. High blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  • Reduced risk of vision problems: The American Heart Association state that yolks are a significant source of lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids may protect against cataracts and macular degeneration, two common eye problems that often develop after the age of 55 years.

It is worth noting that many of the studies in this review did not test the effects of egg yolks in humans. Instead, they performed the tests in a laboratory or on animals. Therefore, the findings may not apply to humans.

Researchers have also started exploring the potential of various immunostimulants called immunoglobulins, which are present in egg yolks.

For example, a 2017 study found that female mice were less likely to become infected with Helicobacter pylori — bacteria that commonly cause intestinal infection — after consuming anti-VacA IgY, an immunoglobulin in egg yolk.



a man cooking eggs in a frying pan.
Cooking eggs in oil will increase the fat content of a dish.

The nutritional content of an egg yolk depends on the size, origin, and processing of the egg, as well as the species from which it comes.

The final dietary value of egg yolks varies greatly depending on their preparation. For example, cooking whole eggs in oil may double or even triple the fat and cholesterol content of an egg dish.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a raw yolk from one standard, large egg provides the following:

  • 55 calories
  • 2.70 g of protein
  • 4.51 g of fat
  • 184 milligrams (mg) of cholesterol
  • 0.61 g of carbohydrate
  • 0.10 g of sugar
  • 0 g of dietary fiber

Egg yolks contain at least seven essential minerals, including:

Egg yolks are a plentiful source of many vitamins, especially fat- and water-soluble vitamins.

The table below outlines the vitamin content of one large (17 g) egg yolk.

Thiamin 0.030 mg
Riboflavin 0.090 mg
Niacin 0.004 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.060 mg
Vitamin B-12 0.332 micrograms (mcg)
Vitamin A 64.8 mcg
Vitamin E 0.439 mg
Vitamin D (D-2 and D-3) 0.918 mcg
Vitamin K 0.119 mcg

Duck, quail, goose, and turkey eggs contain higher amounts of many vital nutrients than chicken eggs.

Yolk vs. egg white

In comparison with the 2.7 g of protein in the yolk of a single, large egg, the white provides 3.6 g.

While the white provides more protein, the yolk contains nearly all of the fat- and water-soluble vitamins and minerals in eggs. Research suggests that consuming whole eggs has more significant benefits than eating egg whites alone.

For example, a 2017 study found that young men who ate whole eggs immediately after performing resistance exercises had higher rates of muscle metabolism than those who consumed only egg whites.

Buying eggs from a reputable seller may reduce the risk of food poisoning.

The most common health concern relating to eggs is food poisoning from the bacteria Salmonella, which poultry naturally carry. These bacteria may contaminate the eggs.

Salmonella infections can be serious, especially for young children, people with immune conditions, and those over the age of 65 years. However, following a few basic safety precautions when purchasing, storing, handling, and cooking eggs significantly reduces the risk of food poisoning.

Tips for safely dealing with eggs include:

  • purchasing eggs from a reputable, licensed source or a trusted local farmer
  • making sure that eggs do not have cracks or holes in the shell before purchasing them
  • storing eggs in the refrigerator at 40°F (4.4°C)
  • washing the hands and all exposed surfaces with soap and water immediately after coming into contact with raw eggs
  • eating or refrigerating eggs no more than 2 hours after cooking them
  • cooking eggs until at least the whites are firm (individuals at higher risk of infection should cook eggs until both the white and yolk are firm)
  • cooking egg dishes, such as casseroles or quiches, to an internal temperature of at least 160°F (71.1°C)
  • cooking scrambled eggs until firm
  • throwing away broken, dirty, or cracked eggs, as well as expired eggs and egg products
  • avoiding eggs that have an odd consistency, appearance, or smell
  • keeping raw eggs away from other foods, especially foods that do not require cooking
  • using pasteurized eggs for dressings and condiments that require soft boiled eggs, such as hollandaise sauce, mayonnaise, and Caesar salad dressing

Here, learn more about Salmonella.


Egg yolks and whites provide the most nutrition when a person consumes them together as part of a whole egg.

Most nutrients in an egg are present in the yolk. The results of lab studies suggest that some compounds in egg yolk can help prevent gastrointestinal distress, boost immune function, and reduce blood pressure.

However, further studies in humans are necessary to confirm these possible benefits.

Eggs also carry a risk of Salmonella infection if a person does not correctly store and prepare them. Maintaining good hygiene while preparing eggs is key to preventing food poisoning.


Do egg yolks still provide nutritional benefits when people use them in cakes?


Eggs are a very important part of many baking processes, and cakes will contain protein and some nutrients from the eggs in them.

However, cakes also have high sugar content, and it is important to limit the consumption of sweet foods to improve overall health.

Eggs will provide more nutrition as a standalone food than as an ingredient in baked goods that are high in fat and added sugar.

Natalie Olsen, RD, LD, ACSM EP-CAnswers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

Health Benefits of Cooked Yolk Vs. Uncooked Yolks

Written by Sandi Busch; Updated December 14, 2018

When you cook an egg, the texture and flavor of the yolk changes, so sometimes preparation choices come down to personal preferences. But there are some health benefits to consider. One important benefit of thoroughly cooking the yolk is that the heat kills any bacteria. Eating uncooked yolks is not recommended, but if they’re lightly cooked, yolks retain more nutrients and you’ll lower the risk of unhealthy changes to cholesterol.

Boost Nutrient Retention

The egg yolk supplies almost all of the whole egg’s iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin B-6, folate and vitamin B-12. It also contains 100 percent of the egg’s vitamin A, which includes two antioxidant carotenoids — lutein and zeaxanthin — that help keep your eyes healthy. Lutein and zeaxanthin are susceptible to heat, so you’ll get more from your eggs if you eat them with the yolks lightly cooked. When eggs are boiled, you’ll lose about 23 percent of the lutein, while microwaving and frying result in losses of 17 and 19 percent respectively, according to a report in the “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry” in December 2012.


Avoid Oxidized Cholesterol

All of the egg’s cholesterol is found in the yolk. When cholesterol is exposed to heat during cooking, some of it oxidizes, or combines with oxygen, and forms new substances called oxysterols. Once in your system, oxysterols are active compounds that help regulate fat metabolism and may contribute to hardening of the arteries, reports a review in the “Circulation Journal” in October 2010. More research is needed to determine the role of dietary oxysterols and whether they increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Meanwhile, you’ll get fewer oxysterols by eating lightly cooked yolks.


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